However, because of the need to publicly evaluate the ideology of extremists, traditional authority is now likely to be put at risk by intense exposure to alternative critical understandings.
The best way to discourage extremists may be to seriously seek out the currently-secret ideas their 'spiritual leaders' have about solutions and have those solutions subjected to detailed assessment of their practicality by a jury of their peers after inputs to those peers by reputable experts reflecting many different shades of opinion.
In 2012 (many years after there had been a critical need to do so) questions again seemed to be being raised about the many possible causes of the Middle East's backwardness, and whether Islam was a progressive influence (eg see Freedom and Progress in the Middle East below) There is undoubted concern in Islamic societies about the nature and influence of the Western societies.
For centuries expanding Western influence seems to have been resented as that of inferior upstarts because: Western political influence on national boundaries in the Middle East in the early 20th century associated with the secret Sikes-Picot agreement between France and Britain have been seen to have either: (a) created significant problems for the region; or (b) had no material impact at all - but none-the-less been viewed in various different ways as a symbol of the region's problems [See CPDS comment on this debate in Middle East's Problems: Are Domestic or External Factors More Important? The 1916 Sykes-Picot (so-called 'Asian Minor') Agreement created the modern Middle East - and was the start of many European / American interventions.
 The secret Sykes / Picot Agreement involved dividing the Asiatic provinces of the Ottoman empire into zones of direct / indirect British and French influence.
It also 'internationalized' Jerusalem to gain concessions from Russia.