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Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Muhammad and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.

Abu-Bakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces.By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and continued its westward expansion. 641: Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.641/2: Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt.Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia.

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