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However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon. 639-42: Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As.

637: The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.

In the end, all the Jews were either banished or executed.

March 15, 624: At the Battle of Abdr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. 655) laid siege to Muhammad’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench.

632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia.

630: An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered with little resistance.

Muhammad took control of the city Mecca and made it the Spiritual Center of Islam. His father-in-law, Abu-Bakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability.

Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all.

According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year.

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