Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science.After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols.The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer, and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC.From the 34th to the 20th century BC, northwestern Iran was part of the Kura-Araxes culture, which stretched into the neighboring Caucasus and Anatolia.The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule.The unification of the Median tribes under king Deioces in 728 BC led to the foundation of the Median Empire which, by 612 BC, controlled almost the entire territory of present-day Iran and eastern Anatolia.The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, Popular unrest culminated in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature.Following a coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West, and grew increasingly autocratic.
According to international observers, Iran's human rights record has rapidly deteriorated, with severe human rights violations being committed by the government against Iranian dissidents; in several cases, several opponents of the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei have been tortured, imprisoned, sentenced to death or executed for insulting him.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5 1, was created on July 14, 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, in the dictionary's 2014 Usage Ballot, addressed the topic of the pronunciations of Iran and Iraq.
According to this study, the pronunciations "ih-RAHN" and "ih-RANN" were almost equally acceptable, while "ih-RAHN" was preferred by most panelists participating in the ballot.