Lieutenant General Olusegun Obasanjo, chief-of-staff of the armed forces in Muhammed's government became the new head of state.
In 1978 Nigeria produced a new constitution similar to that of the United States.
Nigeria's national flag, believed to have been designed by Taiwo Akinkunmi—a Nigerian student in London, consists of a field of green, white, and green, divided into three equal parts.
Green represents the agricultural richness of the nation, while the white stands for unity and peace.
Even before the arrival of Europeans, the many nationalities or ethnic groups were highly organized and had law and order.
There were village groups, clans, emirates, states, kingdoms, and some empires.
The Kanem-Bornu empire goes as far back as the tenth century.
Within two decades, parts of the Oyo Empire, Bornu, and Nupe were added by conquest to the Fulani Empire.
Though there was no centralized governments, trade and commercial activities existed.