A more frequent schedule may be desirable in order to maintain a more constant level of hormone in the system.Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream.AAS use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application; and skin patches. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one-sixth is available in active form.It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U. In order to be sufficiently active when given by mouth, testosterone derivatives are alkylated at the 17α position, e.g. This modification reduces the liver's ability to break down these compounds before they reach the systemic circulation.Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive.Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed.
Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of most sports.
AAS were synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate muscle growth and appetite, induce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and .
The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.
Another 2007 study had similar findings, showing that, while 66% of individuals using AAS for non-medical purposes were willing to seek medical supervision for their steroid use, 58% lacked trust in their physicians, 92% felt that the medical community's knowledge of non-medical AAS use was lacking, and 99% felt that the public has an exaggerated view of the side-effects of AAS use.
AAS have been used by men and women in many different kinds of professional sports to attain a competitive edge or to assist in recovery from injury.