The enactment of the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act took place in 2011, with a view to changing the unequal structure of society.25 In the coming years it is hoped that this change in law will stop women being disproportionately affected by HIV.
However, there is still much to be done as more than 30% of ever married or partnered women aged 15–24 years in Zambia experienced physical or sexual violence from a male intimate partner in the previous 12 months, according to 2015 UNAIDS data.26 Children have been severely affected by the HIV epidemic in Zambia, where 85,000 children are estimated to be living with HIV, alongside 380,000 children orphaned by AIDS.27IIn 2016, 8,900 children (0-14 years) in Zambia became newly infected with HIV.
One of the goals of the project is to generate evidence on the feasibility, acceptability and impact of self-testing that will then inform official World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on the intervention in order to catalyse self-testing across the globe.40 Zambia’s change in treatment policy has led to 59% of adults on ART achieving viral suppression.
At the end of 2015, over 63% of people in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART) were receiving it.
This research will also identify social risk factors such as stigma and discrimination, alcohol and drug use, lack of access to services, and the absence of a social support network.10 Once published, the survey’s findings will provide national policymakers with objective evidence to inform HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs for key populations.This is due to them experiencing exploitation, abuse and gender-based violence both on their journey and at their destination which is more likely when they are temporary migrant with few employment rights.21 In 2015, 640,000 of the 1.1 million adults (aged 15 and over) living with HIV in Zambia were women.22 Prevalence is much higher among younger women than younger men, standing at 11.2% for women and 7.3% for men aged 20-24.23 This reflects three main factors: Zambian society and culture is extremely patriarchal, limiting the power of women in relationships.Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom.About 23% had sex with two or more female sex workers in the last 12 months.18 The survey found varying condom use depending on whom the respondents were having sex with.The results showed that, of the men questioned, condom use was at 86% with sex workers, 77% with non-regular partners, 63% with a regular partner and just 7% with wives.